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Outside of Japan and in English, anime refers specifically to animation produced in Japan. Animation produced outside of Japan with similar style to Japanese animation is commonly referred to as anime-influenced animation. The earliest commercial Japanese animations date to A characteristic art style emerged in the s with the works of cartoonist Osamu Tezuka and spread in following decades, developing a large domestic audience. Anime is distributed theatrically, through television broadcasts, directly to home media , and over the Internet.

In addition to original works, anime are often adaptations of Japanese comics manga , light novels , or video games. It is classified into numerous genres targeting various broad and niche audiences.

Anime is a diverse medium with distinctive production methods that have adapted in response to emergent technologies. It combines graphic art, characterization, cinematography, and other forms of imaginative and individualistic techniques. Since the s, the medium has also seen international success with the rise of foreign dubbed , subtitled programming and its increasing distribution through streaming services. As a type of animation , anime is an art form that comprises many genres found in other mediums; it is sometimes mistakenly classified as a genre itself.

The etymology of the term anime is disputed. In English, anime —when used as a common noun —normally functions as a mass noun. For example: “Do you watch anime? Prior to the widespread use of anime , the term Japanimation was prevalent throughout the s and s. In the mids, the term anime began to supplant Japanimation ; [14] in general, the latter term now only appears in period works where it is used to distinguish and identify Japanese animation. Emakimono and kagee are considered precursors of Japanese animation.

Traveling storytellers narrated legends and anecdotes while the emakimono was unrolled from the right to left with chronological order, as a moving panorama. Cartoonists Kitzawa Rakuten and Okamoto Ippei used film elements in their strips.

Animation in Japan began in the early 20th century, when filmmakers started to experiment with techniques pioneered in France, Germany, the United States, and Russia. By the mids, animation was well-established in Japan as an alternative format to the live-action industry. In the s, manga artist and animator Osamu Tezuka adapted and simplified Disney animation techniques to reduce costs and limit frame counts in his productions.

Many animators at Tezuka’s Mushi Production later established major anime studios including Madhouse , Sunrise , and Pierrot.

The s saw growth in the popularity of manga, many of which were later animated. Tezuka’s work—and that of other pioneers in the field—inspired characteristics and genres that remain fundamental elements of anime today.

The giant robot genre also known as ” mecha ” , for instance, took shape under Tezuka, developed into the super robot genre under Go Nagai and others, and was revolutionized at the end of the decade by Yoshiyuki Tomino , who developed the real robot genre. Neon Genesis Evangelion , a television series produced by Gainax and directed by Hideaki Anno , began another era of experimental anime titles, such as Ghost in the Shell and Cowboy Bebop In the s, anime also began attracting greater interest in Western countries; major international successes include Sailor Moon and Dragon Ball Z , both of which were dubbed into more than a dozen languages worldwide.

Demon Slayer: Kimetsu no Yaiba the Movie: Mugen Train became the highest-grossing Japanese film and one of the world’s highest-grossing films of Anime differs from other forms of animation by its art styles, methods of animation, its production, and its process. Visually, anime works exhibit a wide variety of art styles, differing between creators, artists, and studios.

Anime is fundamentally characterized by the use of limited animation, flat expression, the suspension of time, its thematic range, the presence of historical figures, its complex narrative line and, above all, a peculiar drawing style, with characters characterized by large and oval eyes, with very defined lines, bright colors and reduced movement of the lips.

Modern anime follows a typical animation production process, involving storyboarding , voice acting , character design , and cel production.

Since the s, animators have increasingly used computer animation to improve the efficiency of the production process. Early anime works were experimental, and consisted of images drawn on blackboards, stop motion animation of paper cutouts, and silhouette animation.

Prior to the digital era, anime was produced with traditional animation methods using a pose to pose approach. Japanese animation studios were pioneers of many limited animation techniques, and have given anime a distinct set of conventions. Unlike Disney animation, where the emphasis is on the movement, anime emphasizes the art quality and let limited animation techniques make up for the lack of time spent on movement.

Such techniques are often used not only to meet deadlines but also as artistic devices. The cinematic effects of anime differentiates itself from the stage plays found in American animation. Anime is cinematically shot as if by camera, including panning, zooming, distance and angle shots to more complex dynamic shots that would be difficult to produce in reality. The body proportions of human anime characters tend to accurately reflect the proportions of the human body in reality.

The height of the head is considered by the artist as the base unit of proportion. Head heights can vary, but most anime characters are about seven to eight heads tall. Some anime works like Crayon Shin-chan completely disregard these proportions, in such a way that they resemble caricatured Western cartoons. A common anime character design convention is exaggerated eye size. The animation of characters with large eyes in anime can be traced back to Osamu Tezuka, who was deeply influenced by such early animation characters as Betty Boop , who was drawn with disproportionately large eyes.

Generally, a mixture of a light shade, the tone color, and a dark shade is used. For example, the works of Hayao Miyazaki are known for having realistically proportioned eyes, as well as realistic hair colors on their characters.

Hair in anime is often unnaturally lively and colorful or uniquely styled. The movement of hair in anime is exaggerated and “hair action” is used to emphasize the action and emotions of characters for added visual effect. Anime and manga artists often draw from a common canon of iconic facial expression illustrations to denote particular moods and thoughts.

The opening and credits sequences of most anime television series are accompanied by J-pop or J-rock songs, often by reputed bands—as written with the series in mind—but are also aimed at the general music market, therefore they often allude only vaguely or not at all, to the thematic settings or plot of the series. Also, they are often used as incidental music “insert songs” in an episode, in order to highlight particularly important scenes.

Shoujo and shounen anime sometimes contain elements popular with children of both sexes in an attempt to gain crossover appeal. Adult anime may feature a slower pace or greater plot complexity that younger audiences may typically find unappealing, as well as adult themes and situations. By contrast, some anime subgenres incorporate ecchi , sexual themes or undertones without depictions of sexual intercourse , as typified in the comedic or harem genres; due to its popularity among adolescent and adult anime enthusiasts, the inclusion of such elements is considered a form of fan service.

While often used in a pornographic context, the terms yaoi and yuri can also be used broadly in a wider context to describe or focus on the themes or the development of the relationships themselves. Anime’s genre classification differs from other types of animation and does not lend itself to simple classification. A major subgenre of science fiction is mecha , with the Gundam metaseries being iconic.

My Goddess. Early anime works were made for theatrical viewing, and required played musical components before sound and vocal components were added to the production. The home distribution of anime releases were popularized in the s with the VHS and LaserDisc formats. A key characteristic of many anime television shows is serialization, where a continuous story arc stretches over multiple episodes or seasons.

Traditional American television had an episodic format, with each episode typically consisting of a self-contained story.

In contrast, anime shows such as Dragon Ball Z had a serialization format, where continuous story arcs stretch over multiple episodes or seasons, which distinguished them from traditional American television shows; serialization has since also become a common characteristic of American streaming television shows during the ” Peak TV ” era.

Works , Studio Pierrot and Studio Ghibli. There is also a labor union for workers in the industry, the Japanese Animation Creators Association. Studios will often work together to produce more complex and costly projects, as done with Studio Ghibli’s Spirited Away.

Anime has to be licensed by companies in other countries in order to be legally released. While anime has been licensed by its Japanese owners for use outside Japan since at least the s, the practice became well-established in the United States in the late s to early s, when such TV series as Gatchaman and Captain Harlock were licensed from their Japanese parent companies for distribution in the US market.

The trend towards American distribution of anime continued into the s with the licensing of titles such as Voltron and the ‘creation’ of new series such as Robotech through use of source material from several original series. In the early s, several companies began to experiment with the licensing of less children-oriented material. Some, such as A. Vision , and Central Park Media and its imprints, achieved fairly substantial commercial success and went on to become major players in the now very lucrative American anime market.

Others, such as AnimEigo , achieved limited success. Many companies created directly by Japanese parent companies did not do as well, most releasing only one or two titles before completing their American operations. Licenses are expensive, often hundreds of thousands of dollars for one series and tens of thousands for one movie.

The industry has been subject to both praise and condemnation for fansubs , the addition of unlicensed and unauthorized subtitled translations of anime series or films. They also try to encourage viewers to buy an official copy of the release once it comes out in English, although fansubs typically continue to circulate through file-sharing networks.

The anime industry has several annual awards that honor the year’s best works. There were also the American Anime Awards , which were designed to recognize excellence in anime titles nominated by the industry, and were held only once in In recent years, the anime industry has been accused by both Japanese and foreign media for underpaying and overworking its animators.

Anime has become commercially profitable in Western countries , as demonstrated by early commercially successful Western adaptations of anime, such as Astro Boy and Speed Racer. Early American adaptions in the s made Japan expand into the continental European market, first with productions aimed at European and Japanese children, such as Heidi , Vicky the Viking and Barbapapa , which aired in various countries.

Italy , Spain , and France grew a particular interest into Japan’s output, due to its cheap selling price and productive output. In fact, Italy imported the most anime outside of Japan.

The beginning of saw the introduction of Japanese anime series into the American culture. In the s, Japanese animation slowly gained popularity in America.

Media companies such as Viz and Mixx began publishing and releasing animation into the American market. Since the s various streaming services have become increasingly involved in the production and licensing of anime for the international markets. Anime titles appeared on the streaming platforms top 10 lists in almost countries within the 1-year period. Rising interest in anime as well as Japanese video games has led to an increase of university students in the United Kingdom wanting to get a degree in the Japanese language.

Various anime and manga series have influenced Hollywood in the making of numerous famous movies and characters. However most of these adaptations have been reviewed negatively by both the critics and the audience and have become box-office flops. The main reasons for the unsuccessfulness of Hollywood’s adaptions of anime being the often change of plot and characters from the original source material and the limited capabilities a live-action movie or series can do in comparison to an animated counterpart.

Anime alongside many other parts of Japanese pop culture has helped Japan to gain a positive worldwide image and improve its relations with other countries. This visit is a celebration of the ties of friendship and family that bind our peoples. I first felt it when I was 6 years old when my mother took me to Japan.


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Evangelion is set fifteen years after a worldwide cataclysm, particularly in the futuristic fortified city of Tokyo The protagonist is Shinji Serial number for sony movie studio platinum 13 freea teenage boy who was recruited by his father Gendo to the shadowy organization Nerv to pilot a giant bio-machine mecha named ” Evangelion ” into combat against beings known as ” Ssrial “.

The series explores the experiences and emotions of Evangelion pilots and members of Nerv as they try to prevent Angels from causing more cataclysms. In the process, they are called serial number for sony movie studio platinum 13 free to understand the ultimate causes of events and the motives for human action.

The series has been described as a deconstruction of the mecha genre [5] and it features archetypal imagery derived from Shinto cosmology as well as Jewish and Christian mystical traditions, stidio Midrashic tales and Kabbalah. The psychoanalytic accounts of human behavior put forward by Freud and Jung are also prominently featured. Neon Genesis Evangelion received critical acclaim but also garnered controversy.

Particularly controversial were the last two episodes of the show, as movle ending was considered confusing and abstract to many viewers and critics alike. InHideaki Anno and Gainax released the feature film The End of Evangelionwhich brought more context to the original ending of the show.

A series of four films, titled Rebuild of Evangelionretelling the events of the series with different plot elements and a new ending, were released between and The success serial number for sony movie studio platinum 13 free the series led to a rebirth of the anime industry, and it has become a cultural icon. Infifteen years after a global cataclysm known as the Second Impact, teenager Shinji Ikari is summoned to the futuristic city of Tokyo-3 by his estranged father Gendo Ikaridirector of the special paramilitary force Nerv.

Shinji witnesses United Nations forces battling an Angel, one of a race of giant monstrous beings whose awakening was foretold by the Dead Sea Scrolls. Because of the Angels’ near-impenetrable force-fields, Nerv’s giant Evangelion bio-machines, synchronized to the nervous systems of their pilots and possessing their own force-fields, are the only weapons capable of keeping the Angels from annihilating humanity.

Nerv officer Misato Katsuragi escorts Shinji into the Nerv complex beneath the city, where his father pressures him into piloting the Evangelion Unit against the Angel. Without training, Shinji is quickly overwhelmed in the battle, serial number for sony movie studio platinum 13 free the Evangelion to go berserk and savagely kill the Angel on its own. Following hospitalization, Shinji moves in with Misato and settles into life in Tokyo In his second battle, Shinji destroys an Angel but runs away afterward, distraught.

Misato confronts Shinji and he decides to remain a pilot. The Nerv crew and Shinji must then battle and defeat the remaining fourteen Angels to prevent the Third Impact, a global cataclysm that would destroy the world. Evangelion Unit is продолжить чтение shortly afterward. Shinji tries to befriend its pilot, the mysterious, socially isolated teenage girl Rei Ayanami.

With Rei’s help, Нажмите чтобы перейти defeats another Angel. Together, the three serial number for sony movie studio platinum 13 free them manage to defeat several Angels.

As Shinji adjusts to his new fref as a pilot, he gradually becomes more confident and self-assured. Asuka moves in with Shinji, and they begin to develop confusing feelings for one another, kissing at her provocation. After being absorbed by an Angel, Shinji breaks free thanks to Eva acting on its own.

He is later forced to fight an infected Evangelion Unit and watches its pilot, his friend and classmate Toji Suzuharabecome incapacitated and permanently disabled. Asuka loses her self-confidence following a defeat and spirals into ссылка на продолжение. This is worsened by her next fight, against an Angel which attacks her mind and forces her to relive her worst fears and childhood traumaresulting in a mental breakdown.

In the next battle, Rei self-destructs Unit and dies to save Shinji’s life. Misato and Shinji visit the hospital where they find Rei alive but claiming she is “the third Rei”. Misato forces scientist Ritsuko Akagi to reveal the dark secrets of Nerv, the Evangelion boneyard, and the dummy plug system which operates using clones of Rei, who was herself created with the DNA of Shinji’s mother, Yui Ikari.

This succession of events leaves Shinji emotionally scarred and alienated from the rest of the characters. Kaworu Nagisa replaces the catatonic Asuka as the pilot of Unit Kaworu, who initially befriends Shinji and gains his trust, nummber in truth the final foretold Angel, Tabris.

Kaworu fights Shinji, then realizes that he must die if humanity is to survive and asks Shinji to kill him. Shinji numbfr but eventually kills Kaworu; the event makes Shinji overridden with guilt. After the final Angel is defeated, Seele, the mysterious cabal overseeing the events of the series, triggers the “Human Instrumentality Project”, a evolution of humanity in which the souls of all mankind are merged for benevolent purposes, believing that if unified, humanity could finally overcome the loneliness and alienation that serial number for sony movie studio platinum 13 free eternally plagued mankind.

Shinji’s soul grapples with the reason for his existence and reaches an epiphany that he needs others to thrive, enabling him to destroy the wall of plaatinum emotions that torment him and reunite with the others, who congratulate him. Hideaki Anno attempted to create characters that reflected parts of his own personality. Shinji Ikari is the series protagonist and the designated pilot of Evangelion Unit After witnessing his mother Yui Ikari’s death as a child, Shinji was abandoned by his father, Gendo Ikari.

He is emotionally hypersensitive and sometimes does as expected out of soby of rejection, but he has often rebelled and refused to pilot the Eva because of the excruciating harm that has been done to him or to his friends. Throughout the series, he says to himself “I mustn’t run away” as a means of encouraging himself to face the threats of the day, and this sometimes actually gives serial number for sony movie studio platinum 13 free bravery in xerial, but he has a lingering habit of withdrawing in response to traumatic serial number for sony movie studio platinum 13 free.

Anno has described Shinji as a boy who “shrinks from human contact” and has “convinced himself that he is a completely unnecessary person”. The withdrawn and mysterious pilot of Evangelion Unit, Rei Ayanamiis a clone made from the salvaged remains of Yui and is plagued by a sense of negative self-worth stemming from the realization that she is sturio expendable asset.

However, after Shinji and Rei successfully defeat the Angel Ramiel, she takes a friendly liking to him. Towards the end of the series, it is revealed that she is one of many clones, whose use is to replace the currently existing Rei if she is killed. Asuka Langley Soryu is a child prodigy who pilots Evangelion Unit and possesses a fiery temper and an overabundance of pride and self-confidence, which often gets her in trouble and difficulty, especially during battles.

As a little girl, Asuka discovered the body of her mother shortly after she committed suicide, leading the child to repress her emotions and vow plattinum to cry. Asuka and Shinji develop intense but ambiguous feelings towards each other having difficulty reaching out to others. Their relationship was initially modeled on the one between Jean, Nadia’s love interest and eventual husband in the earlier Nadia.

Misato Katsuragi is the caretaker and commanding officer for Shinji and Asuka. Character designer Yoshiyuki Sadamoto conceived her as an older ” girl next door ” and promiscuous loser who failed to take life seriously. The teenaged Evangelion pilots are ordered into battle by the steely Gendo Ikari, Shinji’s father and the commander of Nerv. He abandoned Shinji and recalled him platnum to serve as an Evangelion pilot. Gendo salvaged the remains of his dead wife’s body to create Rei, whom fpr viewed as a mere tool at his disposal to defeat the Angels and enact Instrumentality.

Similar to Shinji, he is somewhat asocial and is afraid of being insulted by others and often runs away from such, often committing immoralities in the process. This fear is also serial number for sony movie studio platinum 13 free drove him to abandon Shinji. He is depicted as relentless in his drive to win, a man who “takes drastic and extreme measures, by fair means or foul, or by hook or by crook, fre order to accomplish his own purpose.

The design of Rei, in particular, became xerial popular that the media referred to the character as “Premium Girl” serial number for sony movie studio platinum 13 free to the high sales of books with Rei on the cover. The producers finally opted for the television series as it was the most widely accessible media in Japan at that time. Critics noted how Evangelion borrowed certain scenarios and the use of introspection as a narrative device from a previous Anno project entitled Gunbuster[28] as he incorporated the narrative structure of Nadia and multiple frames of reference, leaving the story open to interpretation.

A female protagonist was initially proposed serial number for sony movie studio platinum 13 free the series, but the idea was scrapped. Azuma Hiroki has said that the original Evangelion story was “too close to reality” from Anno’s point of view. Basically, Anno thought that the original scenario was not suitable for broadcasting, and he feared censorship. However, he also criticized Aum Serlal, because “they lost any contact with reality”.

For this reason, Azuma stated that Evangelion “is an intrinsic critique of Aum”. The development of the Neon Genesis Evangelion series ran close to deadlines throughout its production run. The initial cuts of the first two episodes were screened at the second Gainax festival in Julyonly three months before they were aired on television. The number of Angels was reduced to 17 instead of the original 28, and the writers changed the sreial ending, which had originally described the failure of the Human Instrumentality Project after an Angel attack from the moon.

Only three staff members from Gainax were working on the series at any given time, and the majority of serial number for sony movie studio platinum 13 free series’ production was outsourced to Tatsunoko Production.

Starting with episode 16, the show changed drastically, discarding the grand narrative concerning salvation for a narrative focusing on the по этому адресу characters. References to mystical traditions in Judaism and Christianity, including Midrashic literature and Kabbalah are threaded liberally through the series. According продолжить чтение Patrick Drazen, numerous allusions to the Kojiki and the Nihongi have a prominent role in Evangelionalong serial number for sony movie studio platinum 13 free the Shinto vision of the primordial studdio and the mythical lances of the Shinto deities Izanagi and Izanami.

Neon Genesis Evangelion has been interpreted as a deeply personal expression of Hideaki Anno’s own zony struggles with depression.

In MayGainax announced an Evangelion film [91] in response to fan dissatisfaction with the series finale. Rather than depicting the series’ climax within the characters’ minds, the film provides a more conventional, action-based resolution to the series’ plot lines.

The film won numerous awards [93] [94] and grossed 1. A new animated film series called Rebuild of Evangelion by Gainax was made, [98] consisting of four movies. The first film retells the first six episodes from the series but from the second film onward the story is different, including new characters, Evas and Angels.

The first film, Evangelion: 1. The final film, titled Evangelion: 3. It depicts “the story of an Evangelion’s activation, rampage and howling in another world”. Ten months prior to the television broadcast of Evangelionthe character designer Yoshiyuki Sadamoto illustrated a manga version of the story, initially a supplement meant to promote the anime series.

The final installment was published in June The soundtracks released to high rankings on the Oricon charts, with Neon Genesis Evangelion III reaching the number one slot for highest sales in ; [] that same year, Sagisu received the Kobe Animation award plahinum “Best Zerial Score” for his work on Evangelion.

Additional classical works and original symphonic compositions were used to score later movies produced within the Neon Genesis Evangelion franchise. In total, the series’ discography includes 21 full studio, live, compilation and soundtrack albums and six CD singles. It ranked on two TV Asahi polls, reaching 55 for best anime theme songs of all time, and 18 for best anime theme songs of the s.

Several video games based on the series have been developed, ranging from RPG and adventure games to mahjong and card games. The series has also spawned visual novelstwo of them inspired the romance and comedy-focused manga series Angelic Days and Shinji Ikari Raising Project.

The original home video releases in Japan included VHS and Laserdisc sets using a release structured around “Genesis 0: volume number “, with each of the first 12 releases containing two episodes each.

Each of the episodes received minor changes and Episodes 21—24 were extended with new scenes. A fifteenth and final release for Laserdisc, entitled “Genesis 0:X”, contained the numbdr versions of episodes 21 to 24 and was a special mail-in offer for fans who purchased all 14 discs. This version was identical to the previous laserdisc and VHS release.

The movies were also released as a special set, just like before. In andthree box sets were released to commemorate the fictional Second Impact which occurred in the year in the series.


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